Considering that creating divisions between Muslim and non-Muslim Europeans is a key aim of violent Islamists such as the Islamic State, it seems imperative to focus on strengthening voices calling for unity rather than further fueling division.
Based on the actions of its leaders at home and abroad, the extent to which Turkey can sustain its role as relevant international interlocutor in areas including the fight against ISIS and the Syrian refugee crisis is in serious doubt.
A 1986 oil price shock necessitated austerity measures including severe cuts to core subsidies for health, education, and housing, which hit the lower and middle classes hard and contributed to a popular and bloody uprising in October 1988.
The International Peace Institute is an independent, international not-for-profit think tank with a staff representing more than 20 nationalities, located in New York across from United Nations headquarters.
IPI is dedicated to promoting the prevention and resolution of conflicts between and within states by strengthening international peace and security institutions.
To achieve its purpose, IPI employs a mix of policy research, convening, publishing and outreach.
The Global Observatory provides timely analysis on trends and issues related to global security.