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Policy Papers - April 01, 2014

United Nations Sanctions on Iran and North Korea: An Implementation Manual

Enrico Carisch and Loraine Rickard-Martin

 

 

As sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council have become increasingly sophisticated and targeted, they have also become more and more difficult to implement effectively. Currently there are fourteen active UN sanctions regimes. Among them are the sanctions regimes on Iran and North Korea.

This manual is intended as a tool for those charged with implementing sanctions—frontline actors from UN member states, international organizations, and the private sector. Specifically, the manual delivers detailed guidance on how to enable a more effective implementation of the UN sanctions on Iran and North Korea.

The manual includes an introductory section explaining the history and practice of Security Council sanctions, including a section on the sanctions committees and other affiliated support mechanisms. It then explains in detail the sanctions issued against Iran and North Korea and provides examples of how they have been systematically violated, including case studies of the illegal trade in restricted nuclear items and ballistic missiles. The manual concludes with specific recommendations for the officials in charge of implementing sanctions, including state officers, customs and border control officials, and transportation and financial industry regulators.

Finally, the manual includes links to extensive annex materials, including a comprehensive listing of the UN sanctions on Iran and North Korea and the corresponding restricted materials, equipment, and technology.

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